In Russia, it is customary to travel by train – sometimes this is the only way to get to the right place. For several years now, quite modern trains have been rushing through the expanses of our vast Motherland, and the Russian Railways system is constantly being updated. But there are moments that sometimes just baffle – they include just the heating of the cars. But there is an explanation for this too.
It is necessary to maintain the working temperature in the car – from 20 to 24 degrees. And the heating system should be simple and economical.
Water – boiler, pipes and batteries. The liquid is heated with coal, firewood or special briquettes for the furnace.
Combined – differs from water only in that heating can also be done with the help of heating elements, which are built into the base of the boiler.
Electrical – electric furnaces are located under the seats and along the walls of the car. And electric heaters are installed in the air ducts
Mixed – when the wagons are heated by electric and combined systems.
And now more about each of these systems.
Water heating system
There is a boiler room with a 350 liter tank. Heat is transferred to the heating circuits – they are large and small. The small circuit heats the corridors, and the large circuit heats the compartment. This is what a standard boiler looks like:
Combined heating system
The boiler is heated by heating elements – usually there are 24 of them. All elements are reliably isolated, and the security system is grounded. Power comes from a centralized power line with a power of 3000 volts. Sometimes power comes from a special power station car, but more often from a contact network. The system is controlled both automatically and manually. The control panel is located in the conductor’s service compartment. And a photo of the boiler in the context:
Electrical control system
Heating elements are electric furnaces and electric heaters. They are located along the entire perimeter of the wagons. Heating with electric furnaces is called convection. And with the help of a heater – air.
All heating elements of the electric furnace are covered with an air casing and grounded. Their power is up to 26 kW, there are from 30 to 52 units in each car. Electric heaters consist of two sections with a total capacity of 22 kW. And the total power consumption of the electric heating system is 48 kW. This heating system is powered by a 3000 V high-voltage line. Here is a heating battery in a passenger train car.
As for the mixed heating system, it is a mix of electric and combined. It is used in compartments and SV-cars.
So why are the wagons heated with coal?
The fact is that not all sections of the railways are electrified. And sometimes it is impossible to include a power station car in the train for economic reasons. Therefore, the boiler house solves all these issues by burning good old coal. This is the most energy efficient type of fuel with excellent efficiency. And yes, it is inexpensive.
Therefore, the cars are heated in the same way as a hundred years ago. This is a time-tested system that will keep our trains warm for years to come.
Well, where possible – of course, they use an electric or combined heating system.
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